A well-utilised word in wine-speak is malolactic fermentation (“Malo”), a winemaking term which more-or-less also describes a style of white wine. The term is most commonly associated with the Chardonnay grape. So, what is it, exactly? It is when malic acid (think crisp, sour green apples) is converted into lactic acid (milk, cream, butter), a bacteria-induced fermentation which happens concurrently or following alcoholic fermentation, a completely natural process which reduces acidity in wine. In red wine production it is par for the course, with almost all red wines allowed to undergo the process as part of its natural cycle, before aging, racking and bottling. However, in white wine production winemakers either choose to encourage the fermentation, typically by an inoculation of desirable bacteria, or they stop it completely. Those who choose to prevent malolactic fermentation do so because they want to maintain the wine`s acidity levels and freshness. A great many of these are produced in steel tanks. Those who favour the process do so to soften the wine and add complexity, and they usually, but not always, choose oak barrels for the purpose. The resultant wine is softened by “Malo” and develops a buttery flavour which works especially well with oak-aged Chardonnays. The wines, notably, have a textural quality and buttery richness. In practice, a great many Chardonnays are a blend of barrels (sometimes tanks as well) of which some have undergone malolactic fermentation, and others have not. Much of the winemaker`s skill is in blending these together, achieving the sought-after fresh, buttery and complex styles we love to drink with seafood and creamy pastas. Incidentally, since most finished wine in bottle has seen at least some oak, typically 6-12 months, the same wines would also be expected to display at least some of the characteristics associated with aging in oak. Chief among these, in Chardonnays, is vanilla and toast. It is perhaps not surprising that many a tasting note refers to buttered toast.
A well utilised word in wine-speak is `minerality`, an earth reference. `Mineral` in wine can be apparent from youth to old age and refers to different elements in the ground. Chablis, which is cool-climate Chardonnay, is grown on Kimmeridgian limestone soil, made up with calcareous-rich decomposed sea shells. The crisp white wine is famously excellent with oysters because of its chalk, shell, pebble and flint characteristics. Left bank Bordeaux, predominantly Cabernet Sauvignon, is grown on gravel, often displaying an interesting lead pencil (graphite) character. In Northern Rhone, where Syrah is grown on rocky granite, the mineral flavour is described as granitic. Dry Riesling grown on the steep slopes of Germany`s Mosel river has a steely, mineral flavour defined as schist, or slate. And in red burgundy, the mineral element is mostly iron oxide. Often soils are mixed and minerals diverse – the exact aroma difficult to pin-point – hence the generic term minerality used as a tasting note. My next word is less clear for this purpose: terroir. Because the term terroir doesn’t smell or taste of anything, exactly. What it means to describe is a wine`s sense of place, encompassing the influences of its location: the soil, climate (cool, warm, dry, wet), prevailing winds, altitude, etc. The winemaker will take all this in – the environment – and seek to harness the prevailing conditions to best effect, to produce the best possible wine. If he is successful, a good wine taster, with knowledge of the vineyard, will be able to taste the wine `blind` and pin-point it to the region, perhaps even the vineyard. The taster will somehow be transported there, guided by his or her sensory antennae: recognition of the grape or grapes, the style of wine, its relative ripeness, cool or warm climate, looking for tell-tale, defining features, homing in, drawing on memory recall and experience. Sometimes, if necessary, the taster will work through a process of elimination: noting what it`s definitely NOT… not Cabernet, not Shiraz, etc . Sometimes the tasting process works like a guided missile, other times it misfires. This could be down to the taster, of course. He or she may well be professionally qualified, but wine is complex with thousands of grapes and differing terroirs around the world; impossible to know everything, no matter how good a taster you are. It just may be the taster doesn`t know of this particular wine. Or he or she may simply not recognise it, on this occasion. Besides it`s easy enough to go down a blind alleyway. Early in the process you get transported to the wrong place, and it
s impossible to find your way after that. I`ve done it lots of times. But also, it`s just possible that the wine lacks a notable terroir, that the wine is without a sense of place. Actually, there`s an awful lot of wine around which lacks terroir, which gives all the more importance and value to those with it. Cheers all.
Winemakers generally use inoculated off-the-shelf yeast strains, not least because they are reliable fermenters. The alternative, wild yeasts, are more temperamental. These are found in the vineyard and winery, and they can give a distinctive, bombastic, highly sought-after gout to terroir. On the other hand, the ferment can stick, and they can be a bit funky. Another strange indigenous yeast is Brettanomyces (Brett in wine-speak), a yeast found in wineries which can impart a farmyard character in wine. A little of this can be interpreted as complexity, but if it`s overly pongy I would take it for the fault it is. Undoubtedly yeasts most important role in winemaking is converting grape sugars into alcohol, but it`s their use in contributing to wine`s aroma, flavour and texture I find most intriguing, not least because it gives rise to some of my favourite aromas. These are brioche, fresh- bread, pastry and biscuit, but also, potentially, nuttiness and acacia. These characters are most noticeable in wines which have had extended contact with the yeast, whether in tank, cask or bottle (the latter, in the case of Champagne, for example). The yeast cells gradually break down, a process known as yeast autolysis, releasing attractive esters and glycerol into the wine, which adds complexity, richness and texture. It`s this which gives us the term “leesy” or Sur Lie denoting the yeasty characters in the wine. Lees refers to the sediment, including trillions of dead yeast cells, deposited during and following a wine`s fermentation. A classic example is Muscadet de Sevre et Maine `Sur Lie` from the Melon de Bourgogne grape, fresh, lean, bone dry and “leesy” with an affinity to mussels and oysters. The effect, if not the flavour, is not unlike the pearly mineral match cool-climate Chablis has with shell fish. There again, from Cote d`Or in burgundy, I know of Chardonnays benefiting from lees aging and a process called bâttonage – stirring of the lees in barrel – which ensures normal autolysis while developing a creamy palate. Such wines are suited to seafood with rich sauces.
Generally, when we refer to a wine`s aroma we allude to its primary fruit characters, including its herbal and floral notes. When we refer to a wine`s bouquet, it tends to indicate a wider scope of characteristics brought about by the winemaking and aging process, during which sugars, acids, alcohols and phenolic compounds interact with at least one of three influencing components: yeast, oxygen and oak (often all three). Phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and tannins from grape skins, are especially important in the aging process for red wine. Moreover, they provide valuable colour and texture. As the wine ages, the colour and fruit fades in minute gradations, the tannins slowly soften, molecules gradually combine, and the wine gets smoother, growing more and more harmonious with every year. Of course, not all wines have what it takes to reach old age. Most are `designed` for early and medium-length drinking. White wines darken with age, with little or no tannins, but those which are age-worthy have good acidity to assist through the years. Eventually, of course, all wines simply fade away, eventually turning into vinegar. Wine lovers enjoy the journey, from primary and secondary aromas to what we call tertiary aromas, with age. It`s why people have cellars and buy fine wine by the case, to witness wine`s unravelling over time. A bottle this year, another the next, experiencing first-hand how the wine evolves. So, what are these intricate, precious aromas we wait so longingly to uncork? For some, in red wines, it`s a beguiling autumnal-leafy smell, an earthiness sometimes referred to as `forest floor` (in reds) or `orchard` (in whites). In others, reds can evoke aromas of truffles, and in whites, honey. Yet other reds can become meaty and even gamey with age. Texturally, aged bottles are oft described as velvety or silky, even sexy. All worth-the-wait, I`d say. In the next column we will cover still more characteristics in wine, including those secondary characters derived from the winemaking process itself. Cheers everyone!
Just occasionally we have one of our wine-tasting dinners to ourselves – for educational reasons, you understand – and how educational it was! Our thanks to the team for all your hard work!
May 18th – 2019
Wine-tasting Dinner, Staff Party
Chef – Dominic Carter
Hosts – Anthony & Janet Borges
Charles Heidseick `Brut Reserve` Champagne NV, £49.99
Charles Heidsieck is one of the most admired Champagne houses thanks to the unrivalled and consistently high quality of its wines. Founded in 1851 by the man who would become known as ‘Champagne Charlie’, this family-owned house is the smallest of the Grandes Marques. Their size, and commitment to excellence, has been underpinned by a winemaking team that between them have been named ‘Sparkling Winemaker of the Year’ at the International Wine Challenge 15 times. The style of their Brut Reserve is rich, soft and opulent, with pastry, pistachio, almond and brioche to the fore, while also being fresh with an elegant mousse, exhibiting underlying fruit notes of ripe apricot, mango and melon. It has had 5 years aging on its lees in their deep, cool Champagne cellars and grapes used for the base wine are of the highest quality thus deserving their Grandes Marques status.
40% Chardonnay, 40% Pinot Noir, 20% Pinot Meunier.
D`Arenberg `Hermit Crab` Viognier Marsanne, McLaren Vale, Australia 2016, £16.99
Named after the calcareous remains of local marine fauna, of which the Hermit Crab is well known. It`s doubly a play on the appellation of Hermitage in France`s Rhone Valley, where Marsanne and Roussanne grapes reign supreme, and a little further north, where the appellation Condrieu is located and the Viognier grape is King. This wine has had a proportion of Viognier fermented and matured in French and American oak, adding complexity and richness to the wine. The wine has intense fruit characters of green mango and melon, with delicious notes of almond, hay, sweet spice and candied ginger.
Viognier 56%, Marsanne 35% Roussanne 9%
Emiliana `Signos de Origen` La Vinilla Estate, Casablanca Valley, Chile 2016 (Voted by Wines of Chile as ‘Winery of the Year 2016), £16.99
Organic wine with peach and apricot aromas and savoury notes of freshly cut walnuts. Smooth, fresh and creamy on the palate with depth of flavour. Aged 6 months mostly in French oak. Malolactic stopped. Battonage promotes transfer of fatty compounds and aromatics from the lees.
72% Chardonnay, 12% Viognier, 10% Marsanne, 6% Roussanne.
Domaine Saumaize Michelin `Vignes Blanches` Pouilly-Fuisse, Burgundy, France 2015, £32.99
Organic Chardonnay from Maconnais, oak matured. White peach, pear, yellow plum and melon blend in with brioche, butter, calcareous minerality and sweet spices. The palate is soft and rich. 10-25% new oak. 100% barrel fermented, 100% malolactic.
Seresin `Leah` Pinot Noir, Marlborough, New Zealand 2014, £23.99
Organic and biodynamically grown, wild yeast fermented, and suitable for vegetarians and vegans (no dairy products or eggs used during production). The wine has bright, fragrant berry-fruit aromas, interlaced with spice and herbal notes. It is focused and concentrated, with a succulent fruit core, framed by fine-grained tannins and a mouth-watering acidity. An elegant and understated style, savoury, with immediate appeal, but structure to last. 11 months in French oak, 15% new.
100% Pinot Noir
Two Paddocks `Picnic`, Central Otago, New Zealand 2012, £28.99
Sam Neill`s Picnic wine has typical redcurrant and vanilla spice on the nose, the warm 2012 adding wildflower, bramble and spice into the mix. It is fermented and matured in `medium toast` French oak for 10 months. A savoury, atypically restrained style for the region.
100% Pinot Noir
Marques de Murrieta Rioja Reserva, Spain 2013, £26.99
Classic Rioja with red cherry fruit but also black fruits of plum and blackberry, accompanied by toast, leather, vanilla and a herbal note. This is elegant, classy Rioja. 16 months in American oak barrels.
83% Tempranillo, 9% Graciano, 5% Mazuelo, 3% Garnacha.
Ventisquero `Vertice`, Apalta Vineyard, Colchagua Valley, Chile 2007 £26.99
Joint venture wine between Australian winemaker John Duval and Felipe Tosso, Dark, smoky red with cassis and black cherries intermingled with vanilla and cinnamon spicy oak, cured meat, chocolate, black olive and black pepper. A slight tertiary earth/game quality persists on the finish, velvet smooth. 18 months in American French oak.
51% Carmenere and 49% Syrah
Peller Estates Icewine Vidal Blanc, Niagara, Canada 375ml 2016, £45.99
A rare dessert wine produced from the juice of naturally frozen Vidal grapes that have been picked in the middle of a cold Canadian winter. This intensely sweet golden wine has an aromatic bouquet of lemon marmalade, caramelized oranges, golden pineapple, star anise, brown sugar, peach and honey.
100% Vidal Blanc
Salmon en Papillote Garlic and Lemon Butter
Creamy Tuscan Chicken Thighs with Crisp Pastry Disc and Toasted Pine Nuts
Rump of Lamb, Potato Vegetable and Thyme Terrine, Aubergine & Parmesan Puree and Lamb Jus
Lemon and Yuzu Tart, Confit Lemon and Lime Zest
You can find a list of grape varieties and their characteristics in wine by searching `Grape Varieties Characteristics` (posted April 23rd 2019) . You will note a lot of the key descriptive words are fruit aromas. For example, strawberries and cherries, relating to the grape Pinot Noir. For clarification, in case required, you will not be smelling actual strawberries and cherries, wine is made from grapes. However, due to the miracle of nature which is fermentation – when yeasts turn grape-sugar to alcohol – certain chemical reactions occur which create new chemical compounds in the finished wine. I refer to these loosely as `esters` (feel free to google). Apropos of Pinot Noir, these are similar in molecular composition to strawberries and cherries. The fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, just as miraculously, creates aromas redolent of blackcurrants. You get the gist. Recognising these tell-tale aromas is useful when you are blind-tasting, but aroma is rarely so clear-cut. There are often multiple fruit aromas, for example. Furthermore, an aroma can be common place, appearing in more than one grape variety. The same applies to wine`s floral and herbal aromas, and to a wine`s spiciness and earthiness. So, for example, rose petals may be found in wines produced from Nebbiolo as well as Sangiovese grapes. Again `esters`, folks, not real roses. Anyway, you can see that wine, as a beverage, is fascinating. And there are other smells in wine, too, which have little to do with grapes directly. These give rise to ever more wordy tasting notes with descriptors such as brioche, honey, coffee bean, mocha, spice and vanilla. Indeed, the processes of aging, in cask as well as in bottle, in themselves give rise to significant changes, in wine`s colour, smell and taste (and yes, more `esters`). I`ll cover more on these in the coming weeks and months. Cheers everyone!
thought for the day:
When describing wine, I am all for waxing lyrical. People can criticize use of enigmatic words such as `haunting` and `resonant` – and the debunking wine brigade do, vehemently – but I fly the flag for the wordy wine-taster who likes to use sensory and imaginative descriptions. English is a wonderfully expressive language after all, why would we choose not to use it? Wine has wide-ranging smells, tastes and textures, and evokes imagination as well as memory recall and emotion. Sensory reaction to wine can be as complex as wine itself, capable of invoking the poet in us. In communicating the merits of a wine to someone else, the wine-taster requires a semblance of context, of course. He, or she, needs to make a judgement about the audience, then speak to it. Little point in going over people`s heads. A Master of Wine writing a tasting note for Decanter wine magazine might be forgiven for his or her flamboyance because the readership is a knowledgeable one. Same MW would no doubt dumb it down a little at the local W.I. There`s also context as to the use of words which might be perceived as negative. The term `farmyard` for example should perhaps be avoided if you are selling the wine, even though a wine`s bouquet might be highly prized for smelling like one! It is also true that a wine`s characteristics can be interpreted differently, so two people tasting the same wine might write very different tasting notes. We see it in Decanter all the time. This can be explained in part due to differing uses of vocabulary. One person`s `farmyard` is another person`s `sweaty saddle`. Next time you enjoy a glass or two with your significant other, look at it, smell it, taste it, and, before discussing it, independently make notes to describe it. Translating these first impressions into your own words is the purist form of wine-speak. Cheers everyone!
Grape varieties influence a wine’s colour, aroma, flavour and style. The winemaker might shape the wine for his own purpose, and soil and climate will have their influences, but fundamentally the grape is the heart and soul of every wine and in learning about wine you will do well to focus first on the classics.
- Cabernet Sauvignon – Bordeaux: Medoc
- Merlot – Bordeaux: St. Emilion / Pomerol
- Pinot Noir – Burgundy
- Syrah – Northern Rhone
- Chardonnay – Burgundy
- Sauvignon Blanc – Loire: Sancerre / Pouilly Fume / Touraine
- Riesling – Germany: Mosel / Rheingau
Pick up any wine book and you can read about Cabernet Sauvignon`s thick dark blue grape skin which gives the wine structure and depth of colour – and conversely Pinot Noir`s much thinner grape skin which results in more delicate, translucent wines with lower tannins, and all that is very interesting but we`re not going to cover it here.
Instead we have provided a list of aromas and flavours in wines associated with single grape varieties; the idea being that you can use the list to try to identify some of the characteristics in the wine in front of you. In time, with enough practice, you will begin to recognise the smells and flavours again in another wine of the same grape variety, and with this recognition and little extra knowledge your appreciation of wine increases a millionfold.
Choosing Your Wines
I would suggest you go to your local wine merchant and ask for some recommendations. Better still, give me a call and I will take pleasure mixing a case for you, to your budget. The wine doesn`t have to be made up with 100% of the grape variety, provided it is the dominant one. For example, as often as not Cabernet Sauvignon is mixed with a little Merlot, and vice versa. No matter. By all means, buy bottles from the New World and elsewhere where the grape variety is prominently labelled, this way you can be sure the wine is at least 75% of the named variety. But also be sure to taste examples from the areas I have named alongside the classics because these are their original homes and the best of these are some of the best you will ever taste.
Also, unless your merchant expressly points out a good example at £7-8 per bottle (our Ventisquero range from Chile is such an example), then, if you can dig deeper in your pockets and ideally spend £10+ per bottle, even better £15-25. After all, you are investing in a lifelong hobby and you are quite possibly tasting wine for the first time (rather than just drinking it) so take it seriously, why not. Generally, as in life, you get what you pay for in wine. At £15-25 (our sweet spot) you typically get good concentration of aromas and flavours, and better length and depth of flavours. Texturally wines tend to be interesting: creamy, velvety, silky. I have a theory about this. Rather drink better and a little less. Make a good bottle last a few days – a glass a day maybe – or better still on the weekend enjoy a special bottle with your partner or a good friend. And make the bottle the occasion!
Keep in mind that certain aromas & flavours in your glass may not specifically be associated with the grape variety. Most obvious is the effect on wine of wood, especially oak. Typically, oak adds vanilla and light spices to a wine`s character, but oak`s affinity with certain grape varieties can result in more complex and interesting aromas and flavours, such as sandalwood and musk, even coconut, cacao and coffee. In these wines the obvious nature of the grape variety will be muted, disguised, even transformed – more complex versions. The Diverse climate conditions and soils can create differences. As age will transform still further, sometimes adding a distinctive nuttiness and/or smoke to white wine (oxidation), and leather or game to red wine. Yet still, at the core, you will – or may well – find the essence of the grape. And in your glass you might well find one, two or even several of the aromas and flavours in our list to describe it, but not likely all because rather they describe the spectrum of potential flavours the grape variety offers, from around the world and from youth to old age. And only some of them, such it the complexity of wine.
- Cabernet Sauvignon: Blackcurrant, cigar-box, tobacco, cedarwood, dark chocolate, mint leaf, eucalyptus, red fruits, lead pencil, vanilla, grass, musk, vanilla, spice, floral (violet)
- Merlot: Plum, fruitcake, blackberry, red wine gums, mint, bell pepper, blackcurrant, blueberry, chocolate, spice, floral (violet)
- Pinot noir: Strawberry, redcurrants, red plum, floral (violet, rose), black cherry, raspberry, loganberry, truffles, farmyard, game, leather, mushroom, earthiness, coffee.
- Syrah / Shiraz: Blackberry, blackcurrant, peppercorn, ground black pepper, cigar smoke, coffee beans, toast, red berries, plum, mint, spice, raspberry, chocolate, tar, game, bacon, Eucalyptus, floral (lavender)
- Gamay: Strawberry juice, banana, bubble-gum, pepper, blackberry, cherry, red berry, floral (roses)
- Nebbiolo: Stewed prunes, plums, spice, leather, game, tar, truffle, liquorice, fennel, floral (roses, violets)
- Zinfandel: Raspberry, blackberry, black fruit, brambly, spice, vanilla, plum
- Sangiovese: Red cherry, red fruit, plum, cranberry, mulberry, fresh herbs, leaf, new leather, game, floral (roses, lavender), Autumnal, sour cherry
- Malbec: Prune, plum, red berry, raspberry, black cherry, mulberry, blackberry, liquorice, tar, leather, game, chocolate, floral (violet)
- Carmenere: Red fruit, plum, coffee bean, mocha, spice, vanilla, bell pepper
- Tempranillo: Strawberry, raspberry, cherry, blackberry, vanilla, tobacco leaf, leather, floral (lavender)
- Pinotage: Plum, blackberry, cherry, banana, tobacco, burnt rubber, leather, smoke, spice
- Carignan: Earthy black fruit, spice, leather, summer fruits
- Grenache: Dark red cherries, black fruits, herbs, sweet pipe smoke, pine, white pepper, raspberry, thyme, fennel, rosemary, raisins, floral (rose, lavender). In Chateauneuf-du-Pape: Eucalyptus, clove
- Cabernet Franc: Black fruits, floral (violets), leaf, grass cuttings, lead pencil shavings, raspberry, herbs, bell pepper
- Barbera: Plum, cherry, vanilla, spice, juicy-fruit, liquorice, anis
- Mourvedre: Game, earth, soft red fruits, farmyard, floral (lavender, violet)
- Petit Verdot: in its youth banana, pencil shavings. In age: leather, floral (lavender, violet)
- Touriga Nacional: black fruits, floral (violet)
- Chardonnay: Honey, fresh butter, cream, hazelnut, floral (meadow flowers, orange-blossom, citrus-blossom) pear, apple, fresh-baked bread, melon, grapefruit, pineapple, mango, peach, lime, tropical fruit, citrus fruit, butterscotch, vanilla, smoke, bacon, toast, clove, cinnamon, nectarine. In Chablis: pebbles/chalk/mineral/flint.
- Sauvignon Blanc: Gooseberry, grapefruit, fresh herbs, asparagus, lemons, crunchy apples, freshly mown grass, mineral, passionfruit, melon, blackcurrant leaf, nettles, green bean, tinned pea, guava, mango, floral (elderflower, Iris). In Pouilly-Fume: flint/mineral
- Riesling: Lime, fruit-salad, petrol (with age), toast, rhubarb, basil, mineral, red apple, honey (with age), melon, floral (rose petal, white flowers, apple blossom, citrus-blossom, honeysuckle), ginger, citrus fruits
- Chenin Blanc: Beeswax, honey, red apples, pears, quince, pear drops, peach, floral (citrus-blossom).
- Viognier: Apricot, peach, mineral, spice, nutmeg, oil, honey, pink peppercorn, floral (spring- blossom, orange-blossom, citrus-blossom, honeysuckle, lime blossom, jasmine)
- Gewurztraminer: Spice, lychee, Turkish Delight, floral (rose petal, Lilly of the Valley), oil, ginger, mango, cinnamon, pot-pourri, melon, cloves, red apple, pink peppercorn
- Muscat: Grapey, orange, marmalade, floral (magnolia, hibiscus)
- Pinot Gris: Spice, honey, lychee, peach, smoke, oil, red apple, pear, orange, marmalade, pink-grapefruit, floral (Lilly of the Valley, white flowers, honeysuckle)
- Semillon: Honey, floral (orange blossom, white flowers) lemon zest, lime juice, hop sack, waxy, toast & butter. Botrytised sweet Semillon: marmalade, ginger
- Pinot Blanc: Appley, creamy, nutty, grapey, clean/neutral, smoky
- Albarino: citrus, fresh, grapefuit, tropical fruits, floral (Iris, citrus-blossom)
- Bacchus: Elderflower, floral, fruity, lemony, herbaceous.
- Roussanne: Earthy, peach, apricot, lemon, hawthorn, white flowers, almond, greengage, lime blossom
- Marsanne: Waxy, honey, tropical, marzipan, nutty, honeysuckle, tropical fruits
- Muller-Thurgau: Floral, sweet pea, spicy, mineral
- Gruner Vetliner: White pepper, celery, herbs, gherkins, dill, lemon peel
- Torrontes: Peach/apricot aromas, floral (jasmine, white flowers, lilly)
Other characteristics found in the glass, for good or for bad, include the following, in brief:
Brettanomyces, a wild yeast in the winery, can add complexity: clove, bacon, farmyard. However, too much (a dirty winery) can be unpleasant sweaty/horsey
Botrytis Cinerea (Noble Rot)), a fungus which grows on over-ripe grapes in favourable conditions (dry after wet), contributes complexity/fascinating orange-marmalade and gingery notes to certain sweet wines such as Sauternes. Adverse prolonged wet conditions produce Grey Rot and spoilage.
Volatile acidity, caused by bacteria, produced from acetic vinegar acid. In small quantities can add complexity, think balsamic, too much can spoil.
Generally, wine faults will be covered separately, however, if you smell wet cardboard or wet dog I would suggest it is probably corked. Generally, if the wine smells and tastes wrong, it probably is faulty. Try aerating in a decanter, you never know, it could be just a momentary bottle stink. It happens.. Incidentally I found this [yes, another list] on the internet. I just hope there`s no copyright.
More vocabulary in wine-speak for easy reference:
- Accessible A wine that is easy to drink without an overwhelming sense of tannin, acidityor extract.
- Acidic A wine with a noticeable sense of acidity.
- Aftertaste A term for the taste left on the palateafter wine has been swallowed. “Finish” is a synonym.
- Aggressive A wine with harsh and pronounced flavors. The opposite of a wine described as “smooth” or “soft”
- Alcoholic A wine that has an out of balanced presence of too much alcohol.
- Aroma The smell of a wine. The term is generally applied to younger wines, while the term Bouquetis reserved for more aged wines.
- Astringent An overly tannicwhite wine.
- Austere A wine that is dominated by harsh acidity or tannin and is lacking the fruit needed to balance those components.
- Autolytic Aroma of “yeasty” or acacia-like floweriness commonly associated with wines that have been aged sur lie.
- Baked A wine with a high alcohol content that gives the perception of stewed or baked fruit flavors. May indicate a wine from grapes that were exposed to the heat of the sun after harvesting.
- Balanced A wine that incorporates all its main components—tannins, acid, sweetness, and alcohol—in a manner where no one single component stands out.
- Big A wine with intense flavor, or high in alcohol.
- Biscuity A wine descriptor often associated with Pinot noir dominated-Champagne. It is sense of yeasty or bread dough aroma and flavors.
- Bite A firm and distinctive perception of tannins or acidity. This can be a positive or negative attribute depending on whether the overall perception of the wine is balanced.
- Bitter An unpleasant perception of tannins.
- Blowzy An exaggerated fruity aroma. Commonly associated with lower quality fruity wines.
- Body The sense of alcohol in the wine and the sense of feeling in the mouth.
- Bouquet (English pronunciation: /buːˈkeɪ/) The layers of smells and aromas perceived in a wine.
- Bright When describing the visual appearance of the wine, it refers to high clarity, very low levels of suspended solids. When describing fruit flavors, it refers to noticeable acidity and vivid intensity.
- Buttery A wine that has gone through malolactic fermentationand has a rich, creamy mouthfeel with flavors reminiscent of butter.
- Cassis The French term for the flavors associated with black currant. In wine tasting, the use of cassis over black currant typically denotes a more concentrated, richer flavor.
- Cedarwood A collective term used to describe the woodsy aroma of a wine that has been treated with oak.
- Charming A subjective term used to describe a wine with a range of pleasing properties but nothing that stands out in an obvious fashion.
- Cheesy An aroma element characteristic of agedChampagne that develops after an extended period of aging. It is associated with the aroma of aged, nutty cheeses such as gouda and is caused by a small amount of butyric acid that is created during fermentation and later develops into an esterknown as ethyl butyrate.
- Chewy The sense of tannins that is not overwhelming. It is not necessarily a negative attribute for wine. 
- Chocolaty A term most often used of rich red wines such as Cabernet Sauvignonand Pinot noir that describes the flavors and mouthfeel associated with chocolate–typically dark.
- Cigar-box An term used to describe the tobaccoaromas derived from oak influence.
- Citrous A wine with the aromas and flavor from the citrusfamily of fruits.
- Classic A subjective term used to denote a wine of exceptional quality that display the typicityof its varietal(s), displays layers of complexity and is very well balanced.
- Clean A wine that is not demonstrating any obvious faultsor unwanted aromas and flavors.
- Clear A wine with no visible particulate matter.
- Closed A wine that is not very aromatic.
- Cloves An aroma associated with oak treatment that gives the perception of cloves. It is caused by the creation of eugenic acidby the toasting of the oak barrels.
- Cloying A wine with a sticky or sickly sweet character that is not balanced with acidity.
- Coarse A term for a wine with a rough texture or mouthfeel. Usually applies the perception of tannins.
- Coconut Aroma perception of coconutderived from treatment in American oak.
- Compact Opposite of “open knit”. A wine with a dense perception fruit that is balanced by the weight of tannins and acidity.
- Complete Similar to the description of a “balanced wine” but more encompassing a wine that all the main components-acidity, alcohol, fruit and tannins-in long along with a pleasing mouthfeel and long finish.
- Complex A wine that gives a perception of being multi-layered in terms of flavors and aromas.
- Concentrated Intense flavors.
- Concoction Usually a derogatory term used to refer to a wine that seems to have many different components that are “thrown together” rather than integrating into one cohesive profile.
- Connected A sense of the wine’s ability to relay its place of origin or terroir
- Cooked A term similar to “bake” where the fruit flavors of the wine seemed like they have been cooked, baked or stewed. It may also indicate that grape concentrate was adding to the must during fermentation.
- Corked A tasting term for a wine that has cork taint
- Creamy A term used to describe the perception of a warm, creamy mouthfeel. In sparkling wines, the sense of creaminess arises from a combination of the finesse of the mousseand the results of malolactic fermentation. The perception of creaminess is generally picked up at the back of the throat and through the finish of the wine.
- Crisp A pleasing sense of acidity in the wine.
- Crust Sediment, generally potassium bitartrate, that adheres to the inside of a wine bottle
- Definition A wine that not only is well balanced but also gives a clear expression of its grape variety or place of origin.
- Delicate A term used similar to charm but more often relates to the more subtle notes of a wine.
- Depth A term used to denote a wine with several layers of flavor. An aspect of complexity.
- Dirty A wine with off flavors and aromas that most likely resulted from poor hygiene during the fermentation or bottling process
- Dried up A wine that has lost some of its freshness or fruitiness due to extended aging.
- Dry A wine that is lacking the perception of sweetness.
- Earthy This can mean a wine with aromas and flavor reminiscent of earth, such as forestfloor or mushrooms. It can also refer to the drying impression felt on the palate caused by high levels of geosmin that occur naturally in grapes.
- Easy A term that can be synonymous with “approachable” but more commonly refers to a wine that is simple and straightforward without much complexity but still enjoyable to drink.
- Edgy A wine with a noticeably level of acidity that heightens the flavors on the palate. Maybe synonymous with “nervy”
- Elegant A term to describe a wine that possess finesse with subtle flavors that are in balance.
- Expansive A wine that is considered “big” but still accessible.
- Expressive A wine with clearly projected aromas and flavors.
- Fallen over A wine that, at a relatively young age, has already gone past its peak (or optimal) drinking period and is rapidly declining in quality is said to have “fallen over”.
- Farmyard A generally more positive term than “Barnyard” used to describe the earthy and vegetal undertones that some Chardonnayand Pinot noir develop after maturing in the bottle.
- Fat A wine that is full in body and has a sense of viscosity.A wine with too much fat that is not balanced by acidity is said to be “flabby” or “blowzy”
- Feminine Describes a wine that emphasizes delicate flavors, silky textures and subtle aromas rather than strength, weight and intensity of fruit.
- Finesse A very subjective term used to describe a wine of high quality that is well balanced.
- Finish The sense and perception of the wine after swallowing.`
- Firm A stronger sense of tannins.
- Flabby A lacking sense of acidity.
- Flat In relation to sparkling wines, flat refers to a wine that has lost its effervescence. In all other wines the term is used interchangeably with “flabby” to denote a wine that is lacking acidity, particularly on the finish.
- Fleshy A wine with a noticeable perception of fruit and extract.
- Foxy A tasting term for the musty odor and flavor of wines made from Vitis labruscagrapes native to North America, usually a negative term.
- Fresh A positive perception of acidity.
- Fruit The perception of the grape characteristics and sense of body that is unique to the varietal.
- Full A term usually used in context of wine with heavy weight or bodydue to its alcohol content. It can also refer to a wine that is full in flavor and extract
- Grapey A wine with the aromas and flavors reminiscent of grapeflavoring—such as those associated with grape jelly. The Muscat family of grapes often produce wines that are described as “grapey”.
- Grassy A term used to describe an herbaceous or vegetal element of a wine—ranging from freshly mown lawngrass to lemon grass
- Green Overly acidic wine. Typically used to describe a wine made from unripe fruit.
- Gutsy A wine with noticeable body, extract and fruit.
- Hard Overly tannic wine.
- Harsh Similar to “coarse” but usually used in a more derogatory fashion to denote a wine that has unbalanced tannins and acidity.
- Heavy A wine that is very alcoholic with too much sense of body.
- Herbaceous The herbal, vegetal aromas and flavors that maybe derived from varietalcharacteristics or decisions made in the winemaking process-such as harvesting under-ripened grapes or using aggressive extraction techniques for a red wine fermented in stainless steel.
- Hollow A wine lacking the sense of fruit.
- Hot Overly alcoholic wine.
- Inky A term that may refer to a wine’s dark coloring and opacity.
- Jammy A wine that is rich in fruit but maybe lacking in tannins.
- Lean The sense of acidity in the wine that lacks a perception of fruit.
- Leathery A red wine high in tannins, with a thick and soft taste.
- Legs The tracks of liquid that cling to the sides of a glass after the contents have been swirled. Often said to be related to the alcohol or glycerolcontent of a wine. Also called tears.
- Lemony A term referring to the tangy acidity of a wine with fruit flavors reminiscent of lemons.
- Lightstruck A tasting term for a wine that has had long exposure to Ultravioletlight causing “wet cardboard” type aroma and flavor.
- Linalool The characteristic flowery-peacharoma associated with Muscat and Riesling It derived from the chemical compound linalool.
- Liquorice A term used to describe the concentrated flavor from rich sweet wines such as those of Monbazillac AOCwhich are produced by botrytized
- Liveliness A term used to describe a wine with slight carbonationand fresh, bright acidity.
- Luscious Similar to “voluptuous” but more commonly associated with sweet wines that have a rich, concentrated mouthfeel.
- Mature A wine that has aged to its peak point of quality.
- Mean A wine without sufficient fruit to balance the tannins and/or acidity of the wine, making it unbalance and unpleasant to drink.
- Meaty A wine with a rich, full body (and often pronounce tannins and extract) that gives the drinker the impression of being able to “chew” it.
- Mellow A wine with a soft texture that is nearing the peak of its maturity.
- Midpalate A tasting term for the feel and taste of a wine when held in the mouth.
- Minerality A sense of mineral-ness in the wine, flavors of slate, shist, silex, etc.
- Nervy A wine with a noticeable amount of acidity but is still balanced with the rest of the wine’s components
- Nose A tasting term for the aroma, smell or bouquet of a wine.
- Oaky A wine with a noticeable perception of the effects of oak. This can include the sense of vanilla, sweet spiceslike nutmeg, a creamy body and a smoky or toasted flavor.
- Oily A generally full bodied wine with a viscous mouthfeel. If the wine is lacking acidity, this term maybe used in conjunction with flabby.
- Opulent A rich tasting wine with a pleasing texture mouthfeel that is well balanced.
- Oxidized A generally negative term describing a wine that has experienced too much exposure to oxidation. A wine that has been oxidized, is considered faultyand may exhibit sherry-like odors.
- Oxidative Unlike “oxidized”, this is generally a more positive term describing a wine that has experienced constrained exposure to oxidation over the course of its aging process. The aromas and flavors that develop as a wine oxidatively matures can range from nuttiness, biscuityand butterinessto more spicy
- Palate A tasting term for the feeland taste of a wine in the mouth.
- Peak The point where a wine is at its most ideal drinking conditions for an individual taster. This is a very subjective determination as for some tasters a wine will be at its peak when the fruit is still fresh and young while for some tasters the peak will arrive when a wine has matured in flavor.
- Peppery A wine with the aromas and flavors reminiscent of the fruit from the Piperfamily of plants such as black peppercorn associated with Syrah and Grenache based wine or the aroma of crushed white pepper associated with Gruner Veltliner.
- Perfume A generally positively used to describe an aspect of a wine’s aroma or bouquet.
- Plummy A wine with the juicy, fresh fruit flavors of plum
- Polished A wine that is very smooth to drink, with no roughness in texture and mouthfeel. It is also well balanced.
- Powerful A wine with a high level of alcohol that is not excessively alcoholic.
- Prickly A wine with some slight residual carbonic gas, though not necessarily to the point of the wine being considered a sparkling wine. Some very young white wines (such as Vinho Verde) and dry rosémay be described as “prickly”
- Racy A wine with noticeable acidity that is well balanced with the other components of the wine.
- Reticent A wine that is not exhibiting much aroma or bouquet characteristics perhaps due to its youth. It can be described as the sense that a wine is “holding back”.
- Rich A sense of sweetness in the wine that is not excessively sweet.
- Robust A term with similar connotations as “aggressive” except that “robust” is more commonly applied to older, mature wines while “aggressive” tends to describe younger wines.
- Round A wine that has a good sense of body that is not overly tannic.
- Sassy A wine with bold, brash and audacious flavors.
- Sharp A term normally used to describe the acidity of a wine though it can refer to the degree of bitterness derived from a wine’s tannin.
- Sherrylike A term used to describe a non-Sherrywine that exhibits oxidized aromas that may have been caused by excessive amounts of acetaldehyde.
- Short A wine with well develop aromas and mouthfeel but has a finish that is little to non-existent due to the fruit quickly disappearing after swallowing.
- Smokey A wine exhibiting the aromas and flavors of the various types of smoke, such as tobaccosmoke, roasting fire smoke and a toasty smoke derived from oak
- Smooth A wine with a pleasing texture. Typically refers to a wine with soft tannins.
- Soft A wine that is not overly tannic.
- Soy Sauce A wine exhibiting the aroma of old Soy Sauce. Aged Bordeaux wines often exhibit such aroma.
- Spicy A wine with aromas and flavors reminiscent of various spicessuch as black pepper and cinnamon. While this can be a characteristic of the grape varietal, many spicy notes are imparted from oak influences.
- Stalky A woody, green herbaceous note in a wine.
- Structure A term used to describe the solid components of a wine-acidity, sugar, density of fruit flavors and phenolic compoundssuch as tannins in relation to the overall balance and body of the wine.
- Supple A wine that is not overly tannic.
- Sweet A wine with a noticeable sense of sugar levels.
- Tannic A wine with aggressive tannins.
- Tar A wine with aromas and flavors reminiscent of Tar. Barolo wines often exhibit such characteristic.
- Tart A wine with high levels of acidity.
- Texture A tasting term for the mouthfeelof wine on the palate.
- Thin A wine that is lacking body or fruit
- Tight A wine with a significant presence of tannins that is restraining the other qualities of the wine, such as fruit and extract, from being more noticeable. A “tight wine” is expected to agewell as the tannins soften to reveal these other qualities.
- Toasty A sense of the charred or smoky taste from an oaked wine.
- Transparency The ability of a wine to clearly portray all unique aspects of its flavor—fruit, floral, and mineral notes. The opposite would be a wine where flavors are diffused and thoroughly integrated.
- Typicity A wine tasting term used to describe how much a wine expresses the typical characteristicsof the varietal.
- Undertone The more subtle nuances, aromas and flavors of wine.
- Unoaked Also known as unwooded, refers to wines that have been matured without contact with wood/oak such as in aging barrels.
- Upfront A wine with very perceivable characteristics and quality that do not require much thought or effort to discover.
- Vanilla An oak induced characteristic aroma reminiscent of vanilla.
- Vegetal A wine with aromas and flavor reminiscent of vegetationas oppose to fruit or floral
- Vivid A wine with very expressive ripe, fruit flavors.
- Voluptuous A wine with a full body and rich texture.
- Warm A wine with noticeable but balanced alcohol as opposed to a wine with excessive alcohol that maybe described as “hot”. It can also refer to a creamy texture derived from oak treatment.
- Watery A wine that is excessively “thin” in body and fruit.
- Yeasty Often uses synonymously with “biscuity” and can describe a wine with aromas and flavor reminiscent of bread doughor biscuits.
- Young Wine that is not matured and usually bottled and sold within a year of its vintage.
- Zesty A wine with noticeable acidity and usually citrus
- Zippy A wine with noticeable acidity that is balanced with enough fruit structure so as to not taste overly acidic.
Interesting, I found another one, quite different:
Wine Glossary Dictionary and Definitions of all the Important Wine Speak terms you need to know:
Acetic: All wines have some traces of acetic acids, which offer a vinegar scent. Too much acetic acid destroys a wine. Acetic acids are the cause behind volatile acidity, or VA.
Acidic: Every wine requires some acidity. This quality makes a wine feel fresh, or give it lift. Too much acidity makes a wine taste sour and feel sharp, lean or angular. Not enough acidity will make a wine feel flabby.
Acidity: There are numerous types of acids that are found in all wines. They include citric, tartaric, malic, and lactic. Wine from hot climates, and or hot vintages tend to be lower in acidity. Wines from cooler climates are higher in acidity.
Aeration: What happens to a wine when you add air to help its perfume become more noticeable.
Aftertaste: This is one of the top components to a great wine. The length of time a wine spends in your mouth once you’ve finished tasting it, is much of what you pay for in a good wine. Of course assuming the flavors offer pleasure. Aftertaste means the same thing as length, finish or end note.
Age: Wines that can age, are of high quality as they get better with cellaring. Aged wines, are bottles that have been cellared.
Aggressive: An aggressive wine is usually too high in acidity. The term can also be used to describe wines with hard tannins.
Alcohol: Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, the by product of the fermentation process.
Alliers: The forest region in France where Troncais grows. Wood from the Troncais oak trees produces the best oak for use in wine barrels, due to its tight grains.
Alluvial: Soil or terroir with mix of rocks, stones, gravel and sand.
American Viticultural Area: Also known as an AVA, specific grape growing area that is marked by its unique terroir and the wines from the region. AVA’s are granted that status by the bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Tax and Trade.
Angular: Angular wines are lean. They are the opposite of round or fleshy.
Anthocyannins: Pigments that give red wine its color.
AOC Appellation d’Origine Controllee: French Government certification awarded to select regions for agricultural product that is most often for wine or cheese.
Aroma: Aroma is used to describe the scent of a wine.
Assemblage: French term for the grape varieties used to blend a wine.
Astringent: Astringent wines taste hard or sharp. This happens because most of the time because the tannins in a wine did not fully ripen.
Attack: The initial taste of a wine in the mouth.
Austere: Austere wines are hard, lacking charm, generosity or roundness. Some wines that taste austere in their young shed that quality when they age. For example, this could happen with some Bordeaux wines. Generally speaking, a wine that is austere young will be austere when its old as well.
AVA: Abbreviated term for American Viticultural Area. Wineries listing their AVA must contain fruit that is at least 85% from that AVA. If the wine states it is from a specific vineyard, no less than 95% of the grapes must come from that same vineyard.
Backward: Backwards is used to define a wine that is tight, closed in or reserved. This means the aromatic and other qualities in the wine are not available to the taster. This is often a normal trait in young wines.
Balance: Balance is one of the key traits all great wines share, regardless of where they come from. The term is used to say all the elements that make up the wine, acid,
Barnyard: Wines with this aroma are best described as earthy, with animal scents that remind tasters of a barn. In small doses, this can be a positive trait. In large amounts, this is a defect. This can be caused by a natural aromas that develop with bottle age, or in the worst cases from wines that were made in unclean barrels or facilities.
Barrel or Barrique: A vessel to age wine which is usually made from oak.
Barrel Fermented: Wines that were vinified in barrel instead of vats or tanks. This takes place more often with white wines. However, some producers barrel ferment red wine. This is known as micro vinification.
Barrel Tasting: When a taster tries a wine before it has been bottled.
Batonnage: French term for stirring of the lees.
BDX: Abbreviation for Bordeaux
Beefy: A big, masculine and often muscular styled wine. This is the same as brawny.
Berry: Berry is another term for grape.
Berry scented: Wines are made from grapes. Yet all red wine wines smell like berries. They could remind you of blackberries, strawberries, cherries, black raspberries, red raspberries or even cranberry or mulberry.
Big: A big wine is one that is filled with ample amounts of ripe, normally alcoholic fruit. If the wine is in balance, this is not a problem. But wines that are too large and not in balance are not fun to taste.
Biodynamic: Vineyard management techniques based on the writings of Rudolph Steiner that on one side, are the best organic techniques, and on the other side can include moon phases, the alignment of the planets, planting cow horns and more. Scoff at this, fair enough. But it does seem to work and it’s becoming slowly, but surely increasingly popular and accepted.
Blend: When one or more grape varieties is used to produce the wine.
Blind Tasting: The identity of the wine is hidden from the taster. In theory, this allows for an unbiased evaluation of the wine. Single blind means the type of wine is known to the taster, but not the specific wine. Double blind means, the taster has no prior information on the wine.
Body: Body is a term used to describe the weight and feel of wine. Full bodied wines are normally high in alcohol.
Bold: Red wine with dark color, high alcohol, with concentration and intensity, that is usually in a forward style.
Bordeaux Wine: Area of southwest France famous for producing many of the worlds best wines that are a major focus on this web site.
Bottle age: All quality wines need to be aged in the bottle before being opened. For some wines, this could be a few years. Other wines (for example the First Growths from Bordeaux) in select vintages require 30 years or more to become mature.
Bouquet: Different than perfume, this denotes a mature, or maturing wine with secondary characteristics, other than primary fruit scents.
Bouquet: Bouquet is the term used to describe the non grape or berry aromas a mature wine displays.
Brawny: A big, masculine and often muscular styled wine. This is the same as beefy.
Breathe: When you allow a wine to breathe, you are giving it air, which improves the perfume and the texture of the wine.
Bricking: When red wines mature or age, they lighten in color and move from purple, to dark red, to ruby and finally to the color of brick. This is the same term as browning.
Bright: A term used for acidic red fruits.
Brix: The measurement of sugar content.
Broker: In Bordeaux, a broker is the same as a Courtier, which is a person acting as the intermediary between chateau and the negociants. Outside of Bordeaux, brokers act as an intermediary between buyers and sellers of wine.
Brooding: Wines that are brooding offer dark colors with intense concentration of flavor.
Browning: When red wines mature, they lighten in color and move from purple, dark red, to orange and then finally brown. This is the same term as bricking.
Bud burst: Term for when the vines begin to produce their first new shoots for the growing season. This takes place in the spring. This is the same term as bud break.
Buttery: Usually used for Chardonnay that has a butter, or buttered popcorn character. Butter characteristics are found in richer styles of Chardonnay that were often aged in barrel and have finished malolactic fermentation.
Cabernet Sauvignon: The key grape used to produce Bordeaux wine from the Medoc.
Cap: Name for the material that forms at the top of a fermenting vat made from the seeds, stems and skin.
Carbonic maceration: Carbonic maceration helps make sifter, more fruit forward wines. Entire grape clusters are placed in vats and filled with carbonic gas when wine makers want to emphasize fruit over tannin and structure.
Cedar: Cedar is a common scent found in Bordeaux wines from the Medoc appellations. It smells of cedar wood, or an old cedar chest.
Cepage: French term for grape varieties planted in vineyards.
Chai: French term for barrel cellar.
Chaptalization: Term for the addition of sugar to the juice prior or during fermentation for the purpose of adding to the sugar content in under, used to boost sugar levels in underripe grapes. This aids in the fermentation process and helps produce, sweeter, fatter wines.
Chardonnay: The world’s most popular white wine grape.
Chateau: French term for an estate. Chateau is used most often in Bordeaux.
Chateaux: Plural for chateau.
Chewy: Chewy wines are dense or meaty, with a lot of texture, concentration and tannins.
Cigar Box: Descriptive term for common odors found in older Bordeaux wine.
Claret: Old, archaic term used mostly in Great Britain which refers to Bordeaux wine. The term comes from the phonetic melding of clear and red wine.
Classic: Classic is most often used for Bordeaux and California wine when the wine is less alcoholic, less ripe and more austere than modern tasters enjoy. Similar to traditional. It can be a pejorative term.
Clay: Type of soil most often found in Pomerol and Saint Emilion that is perfect for Merlot.
Clos: French word for a walled in vineyard.
Closed: The term is used to describe wines that are the opposite of open. When a wine is closed, it does not allow the taster to experience the aromatics or flavors a wine has to offer. This happens most of the wine with young wines. Especially those from Bordeaux, which can experience a closed period before they develop secondary aromatics.
Cloying: Wines that are cloying are too sweet, without ample acidity, making them flabby.
Cluster: A bunch of grapes.
CNDP: Abbreviation for Chateauneuf du Pape. Also written as CDP.
Coarse: Wines that are course are rough in texture and rustic by nature.
Cold Maceration: The process before alcoholic fermentation where the temperature of the fermenting must remains low to help obtain the highest degree of extraction for additional color and aromas as well as raw materials.
Commune: French term for small village that is usually a part of an appellation.
Complex: Complex is an important quality in a great wine. Normally associated with aromatics, the term is used when a myriad of scents or fragrances are found in a wines perfume.
Concentrated: Concentrated is the opposite of light. Concentrated wines display a wealth of fruit, richness and depth of flavor, as well as raw materials.
Concentrator: Machine that removes excess water from grapes to help concentrate the wine.
Cooked: A wine that suffered heat damage during storage.
Cooper: Barrel maker. A barrel maker works in a cooperage.
Cooperative: Group of vintners from specific areas that share marketing and production costs. Some wines are produced from grapes grown by several member of the cooperative.
Corked: Corked wines are flawed. They can smell like a wet dog or moldy newspaper. This is caused by a problem with an unclean, or poor cork infected with TCA.
Cote: French term for slope.
Coulure: French term for a problem takes during flowering that causes flowers to drop off the cluster. When this takes place, the grape cluster reduces its yields and the berries develop unevenly in size and maturity.
Courtier: Broker in Bordeaux that acts as the intermediary between the chateau and the negociants.
Creamy: When has the rich texture of cream.
Crisp: Similar to bright. Fruit that is crisp is usually high in acidity.
Cru: French term for growth or vineyard that is often used for Classified wines.
Crush: Time of year when harvest and fermentation take place.
Cuvee: This term is most often used to describe a special blend, barrel or bottling of a specific wine.
Cuvier: French term for where the vinification of the wine takes place.
Decadent: Decadence in a wine is a good thing. They are rich, sexy, opulent wines with mouth coating textures.
Decanting: Decanting is the practice of pouring wine from a bottle into a larger container. While special decanters for wine can be purchased, even an everyday pitcher will work fine. Decanting is done for two reasons. Removal of sediment from older wines, or to allow air into a young wine, for the purpose of allowing them to soften in texture and display more aromatics.
Delicate: Light wines are delicate. This is not a quality to seek in Bordeaux. It is better suited for some white wines and Pinot Noir.
Delestage: French term to describe the part of the wine making process when the wine is racked and returned during vinification. During delestage, the wine is moved from the fermentation vessel and put back over the cap to keep it moist and to help gain more raw material for color and flavor.
Dense: Dense wines are filled with high levels of raw material giving the wine concentration. This is positive.
Depth: Wines with depth has layers of flavor and concentration making the wine feel deep. This is a good quality.
Dessert Wine: Created for tax purposes, dessert wines are wines high in alcohol ranging from 14% to 24% alcohol. Many riper syles of California Cabernet Sauvignon and classified as dessert wine, due to their high alcohol levels.
Destemming: Not used in every region, destemming is the removal of the grapes from the stems.
Desuckering:The process of removing shoots that are not fruit bearing.
Domaine: French term for an estate. This is used most in The Rhone Valley and Burgundy.
Double Blind: When wines are double tasted double blind, no information of any type is given to the tasters.
Double Decanting: Double decanting is the act of pouring wine from the bottle into a decanter. Washing the bottle out with clean water to remove any sediment and then pouring the wine back into the original bottle. This adds twice as much into a wine, than ordinary decanting.
Dry Wine: Dry wines are red or white wines where all the residual sugar has been fermented.
Drying Out: When a wine is drying out, it is over the hill and losing its fruit.
Dumb: Wines that are dumb have little to offer. They are closed.
Earthy: Earthy wines smell of mushrooms, forest floor or truffles. This is a positive attribute that is experienced in older wines, especially, Bordeaux wines.
Effeuillage French term for the removal of the lower leaves from the vines that will allow more sun to hit the grapes directly, which will aid in the ripening of the fruit.
Elegant: Wines with elegance are in balance with soft, refined characteristics and textures. They are never heavy.
Elevage: French term for the time a wine spends ageing in barrel.
Echantillon : French term for sample bottle used most often with barrel samples.
Endnote: is similar to end or finish. It is the sensation of flavors your palate experiences long after you have already enjoyed and swallowed the wine in your glass. The longer the endnote or finish, in most cases, the better the wine.
En Primeur:The same term as futures. This is usually only for wines from Bordeaux.
Estate Bottled: Term mostly used for American wineries. Estate bottled wines are required to use 100% of the grapes from vineyards controlled or owned by the winery and must come from the same AVA, American Viticultural Area where the winery is located. Bottling must take place at the winery.
Exotic: Positive term used to denote unique, opulent textures of a special nature that are only found in the best of wines, in select vintages.
Expansive: Wines that expand their range of flavors and textures especially in the finish.
Extract: The raw materials found in a wine that is not water, sugar, alcohol or acidity. These raw materials make up the actual soul of the wine. Interestingly, they are on average between 1% and 1.5% of a wine.
Exuberant: This term is most often used for young wines that are fresh, lively and showy.
Fading: Wines that are fading are drying out and losing their fruit.
Fat: Wines that are fat are usually concentrated with a lot of round textured flavors. This can be a good quality. However, as you will see, flabby wines are not good.
Feminine: Similar to elegant, but lighter in concentration.
Fermage: French term for tenant farming. In modern terms, this is similar to a leasing arrangement.
Fermentation: The process of turning sugars into alcohol, also known as alcoholic fermentation.
Field Blend: Multiple grape varieties planted in the same vineyard that are usually harvested and vinified at the same time.
Filtered: Filtering is the process of removing solid particles by having the wine move through a filter.
Fine Lees: Following fermentation, some wines are aged on their fine lees. This is also known as aging sur lie. Fine lees, which are primarily dead yeast cells are created during the fermentation process and are used to add more richness, complexity and aromatics to a wine.
Fining: Fining is done to remove various particles in a wine which would render the wine unclear or cloudy. Agents used for fining include egg whites, clay and dried blood.
Finesse: Wines with finesse are elegant.
Fining:The process of clarifying a wine that is often done with egg whites or gelatin to separate the sediment so that it is can be easily removed.
Finish: The finish, which is similar to end note, is the sensation of flavors your palate experiences long after you have already enjoyed and swallowed the wine.
Firm: Wines that are firm are tannic and structured.
First Growths: Term for the absolute top Bordeaux wines, as defined by the French Government in the official 1855 Classification of Bordeaux wine.
Flabby: Flabby wines are low in acidity and lie there in your mouth. They are heavy and not fun to taste.
Fleshy: Fleshy wines are full bodied concentrated and round or opulent textures.
Flight: When more than one wine is poured at the same time.
Floral: Red and white wines can be floral. For example Bordeaux wine from Pomerol and Bordeaux wine from Margaux often displays a floral component.
Flowering: The time of year that the initial floral blossoms form on the grape vine.
Fortified Wine:Fortified wine is produced by the addition of brandy or other spirits.
Forward: Forward denotes a young wine that is open or accessible to tasters.
Foudre: Massive oak vats that are used most often in the Rhone Valley during the ageing process.
Fourth Growth: Term for chateau in the 1855 Classification of the Medoc that earned the fourth highest level of classification.
Four Square: A British term for a wine that is simple, classic and one dimensional.
Fresh: Freshness is a good quality. It comes from acidity. Wine with ample freshness have lift.
Fruit Set: The time of year when the fertilized flowers morph into small grape bunches.
Fruity: Fruity wines are often simple wines. This is not a positive attribute because good wines near more than fruit.
Full-bodied: Full bodied wines are most often high in alcohol, glycerin and concentration.
Futures: Futures are how the top Bordeaux chateaux sell their wine. Chateaux offer their wines for sale in June following the vintage, close to 18 months before bottling and about two years prior to delivery. In the best vintages, consumers who purchase futures, often pay less for the wines than when they are in bottle. Futures should only be bought in the very best vintages.
Gamey: Wines with gamey aromas smell of meat, barnyards and, or earth. A little bit of this goes a long way.
Garagiste: Out of date term for a movement of small producers in the Right Bank of Bordeaux who were making wine in their home or garage.
Garrigue: This French term describes a fragrance of earth, herbs and other scents found in typical Provencal open markets.
Glycerin: Glycerin, produced during fermentation adds to the texture of a wine and its body. This is a positive term.
Grand Cru: French term translated into Great Growth as the wine comes from the highest level of terroir.
Grand Cru Classe: French term for use in Classification’s, for example, there are Five Growths in the Medoc that are all Grand Cru Classe. The term is also used in the Classification of St. Emilion.
Grand Vin: The best wine made from an estate, usually in France and most often from Bordeaux.
Granite: Granite soils are found in many regions, but it is quite predominate in the Northern Rhone Valley.
Gravel: Gravel, along with other rocks and stones are an important part of many wine regions, especially Bordeaux, and California, for Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc.
Gravity Cellars: Gentle method for moving wine without using pumps and only using the force of gravity.
Green: Green wines are produced from unripe grapes. They display vegatal characteristics. This is not a positive term.
Green Harvest: Green harvesting is when a grower removes unripe grapes to hekp lower yields and increase the concentration for the remaining grapes.
Grip: Used more often by British tasters to denote firm, tannic wines.
Hard: Wines that are hard have rough tannins often with high acidity.
Hectare: European term of land measurement that is equal to 2.47 acres of land. All French vineyards are measured in hectares.
Hectoliter: European term of measurement for liquid that for example is equal to 100 liters to 2.64 gallons. Yields are arrived at by measuring the number of hectoliters per hectare in all French and most European vineyards. In America, it is counted by the number of tons per acre. A hectoliter produces roughly 10 cases of wine.
Herbaceous: Herbaceous is like hot chili peppers. Herbaceous wines smell of herbs. A little is nice, too much and the wine is taken over by the herbal qualities and loses its sense of fruit.
Hollow: Hollow wines are missing the middle between the first sensation of flavor, the attack and the finish. They lack fruit.
Honeyed: A common trait in sweet wine whites which have a honey character.
Horizontal Tasting: Wines that are served in peer group flights from the same vintage.
Hot: A defect in wine. Heat is noted when too much alcohol for the style of wine has been produced.
Ice Wine: Low alcohol sweet wine made from frozen grapes.
Intensity: Intensity in wine is a good thing that takes place when ample flavor keeps the taster focused.
Irrigation: Adding water to vines. This is not legal in most areas of Europe for vines that are more than 3 years of age.
Jammy: Jammy wines are extremely ripe at their best, and over ripe at their worst. they taste and smell of scents of jam and can contain hints of raisins or prunes.
Lactic Acid: A smooth textured acid that is the by product of malolactic fermentation. This is the same acid that is also found in milk.
Late Harvest: Late Harvest wines are sweet wines produced from grapes that are allowed to over ripen on the vine.
Lay Down: Similar term to cellaring. Wines that required laying down, are wines that need time in the cellar to age.
Leafy: Leafy wines are vegetal.
Lean: Lean wines are not concentrated and they have hard edges. They do not offer charm.
Lees: The by production of the fermentation that is created from the seeds, stems, pulp, yeast cells and tartrates.
Legs: The clear, viscous tears that run down the side of your glass after swirling your wine. The tears or legs are formed from the glycerin in the wine. This along with color are the first two things a taster notices in a wine.
Length:The amount of time the flavor sensations remain in your mouth and on your palate after you have swallowed the wine. This denotes a high quality wine.
Lift: The refreshing sensation offered from a wine. Lift comes from acidity. Without lift, a wine would feel fat and flabby on your palate.
Limestone: Made from fossilized seashells and chalk, this type of soil is key for many white wine regions, and in Bordeaux, especially in the Right Bank, in St. Emilion, for Cabernet Franc and Merlot, to a lesser degree.
Limousin: Large oak forest in France, with trees used to produce wine barrels.
Linear: Linear wines offer flavors that remain on the same path and do not change. For example, in the mouth, a dark fruited wine will not change in flavor to red berries.
Lively: Similar to lift, showing freshness in its character.
Long: A positive trait. The longer the flavors and aromatics remain in your senses, the better the wine.
Lush: Lush wines are rich, opulent, glycerin filled and often sexy!
Maceration: Time during vinification when the grapes, seeds, skins, pulp and stems allow their materials to be extracted, adding color, flavor, tannins and raw material to the wine.
Maderization: What happens to wine through oxidation. Wines that are maderized show aged colors and a lack of fruit, similar to what is found in Madeira wine.
Malolactic Fermentation: Also seen as malo, this is the process where hard, malic acids which are natural in a wine are transformed into softer, lactic acids.
Masculine: Strong, powerful, concentrated, tannic wines.
Massive: Is a difficult term. For some wines like Californian or Rhone, it can be a positive trait. For other appellations, this is not positive.
Mature: A mature wine has aged to the point in time that all its elements come together; tannins, fruit and acid. At this time, the wine has also taken on secondary aromas and flavors.
Medium Bodied: Term for wines lacking the same level of concentration found in full bodied wines.
Medoc: The Medoc is a large area in the Left Bank of Bordeaux that is the home to Margaux, St. Julien, Pauillac and St. Estephe.
Meritage: The term was created by California winemakers for wines made from Bordeaux style blends that contain various amounts of any, or all of the 6 main Bordeaux grape varieties.
Microclimate: Climate conditions that take place is small, localized, specific areas, for example a single vineyard in a larger region or appellation.
Micro Oxygenation: A technique developed to help wines taste better younger, especially during barrel tasting. Micro oxygenation, used most of with grapes from warm weather climates involves adding small amounts of oxygen into the wine.
Micro-Vinification: Wines made using micro vinification are barrel fermented. This term is used when red wines are vinified in barrel.
Mid-Palate: The mid-palate is the middle of the wine tasting sensation that takes place after the initial taste and the finish. This is the point in time where the majority of the flavors are released and experienced.
Millerandage: French term for what happens when an irregular fruit set takes place and the berries in each cluster are not uniform in size and have developed at different stages and rates of maturity. This is also known as hens and chicks.
Minerality: This aroma or flavor comes from grapes gown in intense, rocky, mineral laden soils. The sensation is of crushed rocks, stone or cement. This is a unique and desirable quality. This term can be used instead of stone.
Monocepage: This term describes a wine made from only one specific grape varietal.
Monopole: Wine that are monopoles come from a single vineyard.
Mouth-Feel: The textural sensation that takes place when drinking wine.
Mouth-Filling: Concentrated wines with enough volume to take up what feels like your entire mouth with flavor.
Must: Freshly pressed juice, seeds, stems, skins and sometimes stems.
Musty: Old wines from bottles can show musty flavors. Corked wines can be moldy as well.
MW: A prestigious title for a person that has studied and passed the Masters of Wine examination.
Negociant: Negociants are smiliar to wholesalers. Most Bordeaux chateaux do not sell wine to customers. In almost every case, they only sell their wine to Negociants who agree to purchase the wine in every vintage. Negociants resell the wine to a myriad of clients for examples, importers, wholesalers, large merchants etc.
Nervous: Nervous wines offer higher levels of acidity and brighter flavors. Similar to racy or nervy.
New Oak: The first time a barrel has been used to age wine. Barrels can be used numerous times.
Noble Rot: Grapes that have been attacked by Botrytis, which is needed for the production of many sweet wines, especially in Sauternes.
Nose: This common term is used in the same way as perfume or aromatics.
Nutty: Most often used to describe oxidized wines. But it can also be a useful descriptor for sweet wines made from grapes attacked by Botrytis.
Oaky: Wines that are too oaky, often smell of vanilla. Those wines usually spent time in French oak barrels. Wines that are oaky that resided in America oak, often smell of dill pickle.
Oenology: The same as oenology is the study of wine and wine making.
Oenophobia The fear of wine.
Off: Off wines are bottles that have been known to display correct aromatics and flavors, but for some reason, that specific bottle is not at the same level. This could be due to the seal of the cork, storage, exposure to heat or various other reasons.
Oidium: French term for Downey mildew, a fungal disease.
Old Vines: In French, old vines is written as Vieilles Vignes. Grapes from old vines have a minimum of 35 years of age. Old vines can producer better, more concentrated fruit, with naturally lower yields. Vines in some regions like Chateauneuf du Pape can be more than 100 years of age.
Open: Open refers to young wines that display their character and flavors early. The opposite of closed.
Open Top Fermenters: The same vat or tank as the traditional vessel used for vinification, but lacking a permanent top, so that the vessel remains open. This is mostly for red wines.
Optical Sorter: Fast and effective method of sorting grapes after harvest using optical technology for image analysis. Optical sorting helps remove unripe and over ripe berries as well as unwanted vegetal material by the size and color of the grapes.
Opulent: Opulent wines offer sensuous textures and richness. This is highly desirable.
Overripe: Overripe is a misused term. This is because people’s perceptions of ripeness seem to vary. Overripe wines smell of prunes, raisins, cola and other scents.
Oxidized: Oxidized wines have experienced too much air. They can become brown or bricky in color and taste like Sherry.
Parkerized: Term without real meaning often used by fans of traditional wines when wines are richer, sweeter, softer and more alcoholic than they prefer. Term refers to wines that Robert Parker likes.
Peer Group: Wines in peer groups are usually related by the vintage, appellation and, or producer.
Peppery: A peppery wine is just that, the wine can smell of fresh black or white pepper. Peppery wines often come from Rhone.
Perfume: All wines have perfume. Wines with bottle age develop secondary, non fruit aromas.
Petit Chateau: Small estates, which can produce fine wine, but the property is not well known, either because it is located in a less famous wine region, or it is a small vineyard that is not renowned. Some of the best value wines in a region can come from Petit Chateau.
pH: Term of measure for acidity in a wine. Wines with high pH have low acidity. Wines with low pH have high acidity.
Phenolics: Phenolics are the important compounds produced from the pulp, skins, seeds and stems of the grapes.
Phenolic Ripeness: The changes that occur in the tannins, grape seeds, skins and stems when the fruit is fully ripe. This is the same term as Physiological Ripeness which is when the tannins, grape seeds, skins and stems are fully ripe.
Phylloxera: Small insects that attack grape vines. The Phylloxera epidemic destroyed most vineyards in Europe in the late 1800’s.
Pigeage: A winemaking technique of punching down the cap of grape skins that forms during fermentation.
Place de Bordeaux: Name for where the buying and selling from Bordeaux negociants and merchants takes place.
Plonk: An inexpensive, moderate to poor wine without much character.
Plummy: Wines that taste of plums are usually round in texture as well. Pomerol and St. Emilion produce plummy wines.
Plush: Plush wines feel polished, rich, opulent or supple in the mouth. This is a good quality in a wine.
Polished: Wines that are polished are soft, silky, elegant and round, this comes from very ripe and refined tannins.
Pomace: Once the juice is drained from the vat, what remains is the pomace, which is the seeds, skin and stems. This is used to produce the press wine.
Ponderous: A big, powerful, very concentrated wine.
Pop and Pour: Common method of opening a wine bottle by the act of simply removing the cork and pouring the wine. Popped and poured wines are not decanted.
Port: Rich, alcoholic, sweet, fortified wine produced in the Oporto region of Portugal.
Port like: Dry red wine that is described as Port like, are very thick, rich, concentrated and ripe. This can be a positive trait in many wines and a negative in others.
Powerful: Powerful wines are concentrated with raw material, flavor and tannin.
Press Wine: Essentially the second pressing of the pomace, which is made from the grape skins, seeds and pulp after the fermented juice is removed from the solid materials. Press wine provides more tannins, color and potential flavors and can be blended in or not, depending on the vintage and the choice of the wine maker.
Premox: Extreme flaw in supposedly ageworthy white wine caused by the premature oxidation of the wine, resulting in dark colors, maderized aromas and off flavors. This is most often seen in white Burgundy, but it has appeared in other white wines as well.
Pruney: Wines produced from grapes that are too ripe and become overly jammy, are said to be pruney.
Pruning: Done to reduce yields in the winter, pruning involves the cutting and removal of different parts of the vines.
Pump Over: Pump overs are what takes place when the wine is removed from the bottom of the vat and returned to the of the vat, which adds air and keeps the cap wet and submerged. This is also known as remontage.
Punt: Indentation at the bottom of the bottom.
Pure: Purity is a good thing in a wine, and hard to find. Wine with purity allow the true expression of the fruit to come through. Think of tasting a sweet, ripe berry off the vine.
QPR: Quality, price ratio. A way to value a wine. Most of the time, this is for value wines.
Quaffer: Usually inexpensive wine without faults that is easy to drink on release.
Racking: During the racking process, the wine is moved from one barrel to a different barrel to add air and to allow for the removal of any sediment.
Racy: Racy wines offer higher levels of acidity. Similar to nervous or nervy.
Raisiny: Similar to pruney, but with raisin flavors as opposed to prunes. Raisin characteristics develop in over ripe fruit.
Ratings: Ratings are numbers given to wines to show how a taster ranks them against other wines in a similar peer group.
Recork: Removal and replacement of the original cork, due to age. In France, corks can be marked “Rebouchée.”
Red Table Wine: Created for tax purposes, red table wines vary in alcohol from 11%-14%. This is the same as a Table Wine.
Reduction: A wine that has just completed fermentation requires finished oxygen to develop correctly. Oak barrels are the perfect vessel, as they allow the correct amount of oxygen to enter the wine. When the wine does not receive ample oxygen, it becomes reduced. The lack of oxygen allows sulfur into the wine, resulting in a wine that smells dirty, like rotten vegetables or worse.
Reserve: Over used term that can have different meanings, depending on the producer. Most of the time, it refers to a producers higher quality wine.
Residual Sugar: Residual Sugar or RS is the unfermented sugar that remains in a finished wine.
Rich: Wines that are rich display ample texture, body and flavor, along with a long finish.
Right Bank: The Right Bank is the home to Bordeaux wines from Pomerol, St. Emilion and other wines in that area.
Ripe: A ripe wine is one that is produced wine is ripe when its grapes have reached the optimum level of maturity.
Round: Round wines feel opulent in your mouth. This trait can come from low acid wines and wines produced from fruit when the tannins were allowed to fully ripen.
Rustic: Generally speaking, rustic wines are rough textured, old school wines that are often austere and stern. However, rustic can be more of a simple, country wine with character as well. The term can take on slightly different meanings, depending on the appellation.
Saignee: French term for method of producing rose’ wine by bleeding of the tanks after the wine has had limited contact with the grape skins.
Satellite Appellations: Various small appellations located in the Right Bank that are close to, but not in St. Emilion. These regions are capable of producing some very nice wine, often offering some of the best value wines in Bordeaux.
Score: Wine writers and critics often apply numerical scores to denote a wines level of quality vis a vis other wines in the same peer group. This is the same as a rating.
Seamless: When a taster experiences a wine that moves from the first taste, to the mid palate through to the finish without a break between the sensations and all the elements of the wine are in balance. This trait is hard to find.
Sec: French term for dry wine.
Second Growth: Term for chateau in the 1855 Classification of the Medoc that earned the second highest level of classification.
Secondary Frementation: The term for on the positive side, what takes place to change still wine into Champagne or sparkling wine On the negative side, this can also take place in the bottle due to remaining sugars and will ruin the wine.
Second Wine: A second wine is often produced from an estate’s young vines, or from juice or grapes that is not considered to be at the desired level of quality for the properties top wine.
Secondary Aromas: This is what happens to the scent of wine once it matures. It develops tertiary, non fruit aromatics like truffles, tobacco, leather, tar, cedar and spice. This is a positive term.
Sediment: Natural occurrence as wines age that is formed with the tannins, pigments and other materials bond together. This is the mark of a wine that is maturing. Sediment will not harm you, but its bitter taste is not going to help your wine. You should remove the sediment by decanting.
Selection Massale: Used often in Bordeaux by growers that want to replace unhealthy, or under performing vines with vine cuttings produced from the estates oldest, best vines from their vineyard. This helps promote a more unique character to the vineyard.
Sexy: Sexy is good in life, and in wine. Sexy wines are sensuous, silky and opulent. They are usually rich wines as well.
Short: The opposite of long. A wine that is short has on length in the finish. This is a poor attribute.
Silex Soil, or terroir consisting of a mixture of sand, flint and rocks.
Silky: Similar to velvety, but perhaps a little lighter. Silky wines feel polished in your mouth.
Simple: Simple wines lack complexity beyond their initial fruit character.
Single Vineyard: Wines produced from grapes grown in one single vineyard, instead of multiple vineyard sites.
Single Blind: In a single blind tasting, the tasters know the names of the wines, or the type of wine in the tasting but not their specific order.
Slate: Type or rock soil or terroir often found in the Northern Rhone and in Germany.
Slow oxidation: This technique involves removing the capsule and cork and allowing the wine to sit for hours before opening. This does nothing for the development of a wine.
Smoky: Some wines offer scents of smoke, fire, char or burnt aromas. This happens either because of the char in the barrels, the soil or the grapes.
Smooth: Wines that are smooth, feel soft on your palate. They transition from the beginning to the middle through to the end, with that a smooth texture. This is a positive attribute.
SO2: Chemical compound shorthand for sulfur dioxide, a gas which is used as a preservative agent to help avoid oxidation.
Soft: Soft wines are round, elegantly textured and can be low in acidity.
Sorting: Sorting is the last step before fermentation. During sorting, the wine maker removes all the unripe grapes and other unwanted material. Sorting can be done by hand or with new, optical sorting machines or other techniques.
Spicy: Wines often smell like different spices ranging from pepper, to cinnamon, to 5 spice or cloves.
Spoofilated: Ridiculous term used by detractors of Robert Parker for wines they deem were produced using some of the more modern, widely accepted wine making techniques.
Stone: Similar to Minerality, This aroma or flavor comes from grapes gown in intense mineral laden soils, normally filled with limestone. The sensation is of crushed rocks, stone or cement. This is a unique and desirable quality.
Super Second: The term for Second Growth Bordeaux wines that are considered to be so good, they are better than most Second Growths, but not quite at the level of First Growth Bordeaux.
Sur Lie: French term for a wine that is aged on its fine lees, meaning seeds, skins and other grape solids along with yeast cells.
Structure: Structure is created by all the components that go into a wine, fruit, acid, tannin, sugar and alcohol.
Supple: Young wines that are lush are considered supple.
Syrah: The only red grape used in the Northern Rhone and an important blending grape for Chateauneuf du Pape.
Supple: Supple wines are rich, plush and soft in the mouth.
Sweet Wine: Sweet wines are red or white wines which have varying degrees of residual sugar remaining.
Table Wine: Table wines do not denote quality, or a lack thereof. It is a degree of measurement for all wines that range from 11% to 14% alcohol.
Tank: A vessel for fermentaion that is most often made of stainless steel, cement or oak. This is the same as a vat.
Tannin: Tannins which are extracted from the grape skins and stems, coupled with acidity and alcohol, are the backbone of a wine and one of the key components to a long life. Tannins need to be ripe for a wine to feel good in your mouth, Unripe tannins can make your mouth feel dry or make the wine seem hard.
Tart: Tart wines are produced from unripe fruit and, or fruit that is overly acidic.
Tartaric Acid: The small, harmless crystals found at the bottom of a wine bottle. The crystals are harmless, odorless and lack flavor. They occur naturally when some wines age.
TCA (2,4,6-Trichloroanisole) TCA is the chemical compound that is the main cause of cork taint in wine.
Terroir: A sense of place created from numerous environmental factors ranging from soil types, exposure, climate, topography and various other elements specific to the unique location. Those factors have a real effect on the vine and its expression of character on the vines and in the grapes. Terroir can be effected severely by the choices the winemaker makes in the cellars and in the vineyards.
Tertiary Aromas: The same as secondary aromas. This is what happens to the scent of wine once it matures. It develops secondary, non fruit aromatics like truffles, tobacco, leather, tar, cedar and spice. This is a positive term.
Third Growth: Term for chateau in the 1855 Classification of the Medoc that earned the Third highest level of classification.
Three Tier System: Bizarre, anachronistic American system of wine distribution which in some states can require wineries to sell to an importer or in the case of it being an American winery, the distributor or wholesaler, who then sells it to the merchant, who sells it to you. Ostensibly designed to protect the consumer, it’s sole purpose is to make money for the large monopolistic wholesalers while costing the consumer more money.
Tight: Tight is similar to closed in that the wine is holding its personality and positive traits in reserve.
Tobacco: Tobacco is a common smell found in mature wines, especially from Bordeaux. The aromas can range from cigar tobacco to ash or even pipe aromatics. This is a positive trait.
Torrefaction: Coffee with vanilla aromatics, with scents arising from the oak barrels during the aging process.
Traditional: Similar to classic. Traditional is most often used for Bordeaux and California wine when the wine is less alcoholic, less ripe and more austere than modern tasters prefer. It can be a pejorative term. Traditional is also used to describe many wines in the Rhone Valley. In the Rhone Valley, generally speaking, traditional wines do not see much new oak, the grapes can be vinified with stems and alcohol levels could be lower.
Tranche: French term for the amount of wine released for sale by the chateau during the En Primeur campaign. Loosely translated, a tranche is a slice of the wine produced that year.
Triple Digits: Slang term for wines reaching 100 Pt score.
Typicity: Wines with typicity are said to either express the grape varietal, the terroir of an appellatio or the typical wine making techniques of that region.
Ullage: Term for the air space between the wine and the cork. The level of ullage can determine the potential level of quality in an older wine.
Unctuous: Unctuous wines have viscosity, or a rich mouth feel.
VA: VA is short for volatile acidity.
Vat: A vessel for fermentation that is most often made of stainless steel, cement or oak. This is the same as a tank.
Vegetal: An undesirable quality that is noted in wines produced from unripe grapes.
Velvety: This term can be exchanged with silk, lush or plush to describe wines with opulent texture.
Veraison: Term for when the grapes change color from green to deep purple for red wines and when the grapes change from green to more of a yellow tone for white wine grapes during the growing season.
Vertical Tasting: A vertical tasting consists of the same wines from a single producer, winery or vineyard in multiple vintages.
Vibrant: Wines that are fresh, lively, energetic, with good acidity, but also rich with depth. This is a positive trait.
Vin de Paille A sweet wine made from grapes dried on straw mats.
Vieilles Vignes: French term for old vines. Grapes from old vines have a minimum of 35 years of age. Old vines can producer better, more concentrated fruit, with naturally lower yields. Vines in some areas like Chateauneuf du Pape can be more than 100 years of age.
Vigneron: French term for a wine maker or wine grower.
Vignoble: French term for a wine growing area.
Vin: French term for wine.
Vin de Paille: Sweet wines that are produced by allowing the extremely ripe grapes to dry out on straw mats to decrease their juice while increasing their sugar levels.
Vintage: The specific year the grapes were harvested in.
Viscous: Viscous wines are thick, rich and concentrated and display an unctuous quality.
Viticulture: The study and, or act of grape growing.
Volatile: A volatile wine smells of vinegar due to an abundance of acetic bacteria. In some wines, a tiny dose can be seen as a positive trait. In large amounts this easily ruins a wine.
Volcanic: Type of soil and terroir, often found in Napa Valley that comes from rocks, stones, lava, ash and pumice, that were created through volcanic eruptions.
Whole Bunch Vinification: Method of fermenting the grapes with the stems still attached.
Woody: Woody wines are oaky. They feature strong, often overwhelming scents of vanilla, coffee or smoke. They can also feel dry in the mouth. This is a flaw.
Yeast: Yeast helps the process of converting sugar to alcohol during the fermentation process.
Yield: The term of measurement for the quantity of grapes collected in a harvest. In Europe, it is measured in hectolitres per hectare. In America, it is measured in tons per acre. Low yields are often seen as having the potential to produce better wine due to increased concentration and selection.
Letter to The Wine Merchant. Follows a brave young merchant (Mike) who spoke out about his problem drinking.
I should, first off, like to congratulate you [Graham Holter, The Wine Merchant] for covering the Mike Oldfield story, and I should like to send Mike a huge hurrah for 1) being so strong in fighting his addiction, and 2) being so brave coming forward in this way. Neither action will have been easy. Yet, as a result, here I am compelled to write to The Wine Merchant now, and hopefully others will do so also. Because let`s make no bones about it, we in the industry need to be addressing this. The subject of alcoholism, like the proverbial elephant in the room, can no longer be ignored. Many of us are surrounded by bottles, even open bottles, all the time; and for many of us they are a passion, no less! Moreover, we have the perfect excuse: they need sampling, and they need drinking up! And then there are the wine-tastings, six hours of spitting out – one or two glasses with lunch, maybe – then the last hour, oh what the heck, head for the Grand Crus and swallow. `Lovely jubbly`. Oh, and a beer for the road. Indeed, it`s all too easy to go down the wrong road, and we must all be careful. Let Mike`s story be a reminder to us all. Meantime, as license holders (many of us), we are meant to be responsible and manage others – our customers – when they get into trouble or become difficult. It is, as I see it, our duty of care. As far as I am aware there is no instruction book on how to manage alcoholism and drunkenness (often two different conditions) when you are confronted with them, so we just get on with it, don`t we? We do what we can and deal with difficult situations as professionally as we can, compassionately if possible, firmly when necessary. Sharing experiences might be useful if there was an appropriate forum. I don`t pretend, incidentally, to be especially masterful at this art. In terms of dealing with aggressive drunkenness I can only think of one time in nearly twenty years. It involved an Irish gentleman of the travelling community. I was obliged to escort the man out of the building and, vexingly, he appeared to cast a spell on me! There again my shop is in a relatively crime-free leafy area in the home counties. It is not Birmingham. Indeed, I have no doubt there are a good deal of horror stories out there that will make my Irishman pale by comparison. But alcoholism exists in every community and I have been exposed over the years to my fair share of alcoholics, believe me; and I like to think I have been of some help to some of them. It might be a regular who is a little shaky and smells of alcohol (obviously a little drunk, but not offensive) and together with staff we play God: “If we don`t serve him, someone else will.” “What if the rejection upsets him?” “He`s no trouble to us.” “I know his son, shall we speak with him?” And so on. We do what we can. At any rate, in our Great Horkesley shop we have embraced Dry January these last few years and we continue to promote sensible drinking at every opportunity. The axiom: “Drink better, and less” has never been more apt for our time, and what`s more I truly believe it is good for business. It plays to our strengths as independent specialists. Cheers everyone!
On Easter Saturday we will be celebrating our 20th year under current management, making the shop 56 years a wine merchant. Some of our older customers will remember the shop back then, freshly painted a burgundy colour in the summer of 1963, the new sign above the door “Peatling & Cawdron Wine Merchants”, later re-branded “Thomas Peatling Fine Wines” (though everyone just carried on calling the shop Peatling`s, as I recall). Owned by local brewery Greene King, it was managed by husband and wife team Brian and Maudi Hardwick. Brian had been a good friend of my father; and having expressed an interest in learning about wine as a young man I am guessing my old man persuaded him to take me on as an apprentice. I still have a photo of the old team outside the shop in 1980 with me, as I looked then, thin as a stick with Rod Stewart-like sticky-up hair (all the fashion back then, obviously). Brian and Maudi finally retired when I bought the premises and business in April 1999. In 2005 I married Janet who had been Operations Director at Colchester`s Williams and Griffin department store. Unlike me she really did have an idea or two about fashion, and it wasn`t long before we annexed “The Wine Centre” with what we have called “The Gift Room”, selling women`s fashion, handbags and jewellery. The deli came about after a trip to New Zealand, having been inspired by the wine-deli retailers there. It involved a major refurbishment at the time, but happily the investment turned out to be a good one. It was the food element, together with wine, which led to our hamper business, and ultimately to our events which have become the cornerstone of our business. Our “table of 18” wine-tasting dinners have proven especially popular with locals. Now here we are in 2019. I can hardly believe it has been twenty years! Which brings me back to our 20th birthday celebration: Lifting a glass to our fantastic customers with thanks for supporting us over the years (Sat 20th, mid-day-2pm).